Month: August 2019

  • New Underground Particle Detectors Proposed for Europe

    first_imgThree new giant underground particle detectors have been proposed for construction in Europe that could help achieve some major milestones in physics, such as verifying the decay of a proton, which has been theorized but never observed. In turn, this could lead to a new understanding of how our universe evolved. A large group of European scientists makes the case for these “next generation” underground detectors and describes them in detail in a recent paper in the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.In addition to searching for evidence of proton decay, the detectors could help scientists learn more about astrophysical neutrinos, those produced by supernovae, the Sun, and cosmic-ray interactions in our atmosphere. Particularly, gathering better data on the energy spectra of astrophysical neutrinos could help scientists better understand star evolution.The detectors could also increase our understanding of geo-neutrinos, those in Earth’s interior. Detecting neutrinos produced in the radioactive decay of heavy elements within Earth is an unexploited field of research that could open a rare window into Earth’s inner environment.The detectors all consist of giant cylinders, but will be filled with three different liquids as the detection media. As such, the detectors will, to some extent, complement each other, each having some capabilities the others do not.The Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment (GLACIER) is proposed for construction in a giant salt mine in Sieroszewice, Poland. GLACIER would consist of a vertical cylinder about 70 meters wide and 20 meters tall, filled with boiling liquid argon. When a particle enters the tank, it would interact with the argon and ionize some of the argon atoms. The interaction would also cause some of the argon atoms to “scintillate,” or emit light. A second type of light, Cherenkov radiation, would also be emitted. This occurs when the particle entering the argon is traveling faster than the speed of light in argon. Both types of photons would be collected by photomultiplier tubes immersed in the liquid argon.Along with the ionization data, scientists at GLACIER will be able to use the scintillation and Cherenkov light signals to work backward and determine what type of particle entered the tank.Another experiment, the Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) detector, would be a horizontal cylinder 100 meters long and 30 meters in diameter. An inner cylinder, about 13 meters in diameter, would contain a type of liquid scintillator, a cocktail that is especially good at absorbing high-energy electromagnetic or charged-particle radiation and almost instantly emitting the energy as photons.LENA’s outer cylinder would be filled with water to filter out muons, common particles that are like very heavy versions of electrons. Photomultipliers would line the cylinder to collect the scintillated light for analysis. The preferred location for LENA is the Center for Underground Physics in Pyhäsalmi, Finland.The third detector is MEMPHYS, the MEgaton Mass PHYSics experiment. MEMPHYS would consist of between three and five cylinders, each 65 meters long and 65 meters wide. MEMPHYS would be filled with plain water and would detect fast-moving particles based on the Cherenkov radiation they produce as they interact with the water. This light would be collected by photomultiplier tubes lining the tank’s inner wall. The proposed location for MEMPHYS is the Fréjus Underground Laboratory in Fréjus, France.Citation: D. Autiero et al JCAP 11 (2007) 011Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: New Underground Particle Detectors Proposed for Europe (2007, November 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-11-underground-particle-detectors-europe.html STAR detector has a new inner corecenter_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

  • Physicists Seek Answers to Quantum Correlations

    first_img Strange warping geometry helps to push scientific boundaries This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Physicists Seek Answers to Quantum Correlations (2008, August 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-08-physicists-quantum.html Physicists sent two photons down optical fibers toward different destinations, and found that the photons could instantly sense each other´s behavior. The physicists, led by Nicolas Gisin from the University of Geneva, arranged their experiment by sending two photons down fiber optic cables to detectors in two Swiss villages located 18 km apart. Both photons started in Geneva, with one heading toward Satigny and the other toward Jussy. The study, which is published in Nature, builds on previous tests published a few months ago in Physical Review Letters.When the researchers measured several properties of each photon at its destination, they found that the particles could instantly sense the other´s behavior without any known communication. Although this correlation obeys the laws of quantum mechanics, it seems to defy the nature of space and time, at least from humans´ everyday perspectives. The physicists ruled out several possible classical explanations for the instantaneous communication. For one thing, they showed that the photons did not share information before leaving Geneva, and so they didn´t travel knowing about each other´s properties. In another test, the scientists showed that no communication could have occurred through a different reference frame, as might happen because of the photons´ high speeds. According to Einstein´s theory of relativity, observers moving at high speeds can get different measurements of the same event because they have different reference frames. But, by performing tests over a complete rotation of the Earth, the researchers ruled out this possibility.For now, Gisin´s team doesn´t have a good explanation as to how the seemingly instant correlations happen. Even though it doesn´t make sense to them, they hope that others might one day find a better understanding.In a Nature News story, theorist Terence Rudolph at Imperial College London suggested that humans think that the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time that we´re used to should be the same everywhere, on all scales. But, he says, some things in quantum mechanics might transcend our view of space-time, and we just don´t get to see the whole picture.”We think space and time are important because that´s the kind of monkeys we are,” he said.More information: Salart, D., Baas, A., Branciard, C., Gisin, N. & Zbinden, H. Nature, 454, 861-864 (2008).via: Nature News After performing multiple tests on two entangled photons, physicists have yet again found that the photons seem to be communicating faster than the speed of light – at least 100,000 times faster. The researchers hope that their results might encourage theorists to come up with new explanations for the strange quantum mechanical effect. Explore furtherlast_img read more

  • Willow Garages PR2 robot learns to play pool w Video

    first_imgThe PR2 platform uses a powerful open-source software library known as ROS, which the team was able to use to quickly adapt FastFiz for their own use. There are two more week-long hackathons to come in June. The first is to train the PR2 to push a cart, and the second is to go and fetch a drink from the refrigerator.Willow Garage recently donated 11 of their PR2 robots to research institutions around the world, which they hope will encourage rapid growth in robotics research and development. Founder of Willow Garage, Scott Hassan, has a vision of bringing robots into our everyday lives, rather than seeing them confined to use in industry. The pool-playing software has been made available for the use of other developers via the billiards stack on the ROS.org website . Citation: Willow Garage’s PR2 robot learns to play pool (w/ Video) (2010, June 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-willow-garage-pr2-robot-pool.html Explore further Researchers develop a robot that folds towels (w/ Video) More information: Willow Garage post: www.willowgarage.com/blog/2010 … 06/15/pr2-plays-pool Image credit: IEEE.center_img (PhysOrg.com) — A Willow Garage “Poolshark” team has programmed one of its robots – in under a week – to play pool, and to play it quite impressively. Willow Garage is a Silicon Valley startup that likes to push the limits for its developers and their robots, while having fun at the same time. The pool-playing robot project was one of the company’s “hackathons” or week-long endurance sessions. Early projects have taught the robot, PR2 (Personal Robot 2), to fold towels, open office doors, and plug itself into wall outlets to recharge its batteries.The robot’s high resolution camera locates and tracks the balls and helps the robot orient itself with respect to the table via diamonds marked on the rails. A bottom laser sensor enables it to identify the pool table legs. The robot executes its shots with the aid of FastFiz, an open-source pool physics program developed by Alon Altman, and a specially designed grip and bridge that enables the robot to position the cue. © 2010 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

  • Rare orchids mimic fungus to attract flies

    first_img Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — In a recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Zong-Xin Ren from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peter Bernhardt from Saint Louis University discuss the lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium fargesii) and its ability to mimic the Cladosporium fungus in order to attract the flat-footed fly for pollination. Citation: Rare orchids mimic fungus to attract flies (2011, April 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-rare-orchids-mimic-fungus-flies.html More information: Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage, PNAS, Published online before print April 18, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103384108AbstractCharles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid–pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves. Cypripedium fargesii Image credit: srgc.org.uk This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com This particular orchid is an extremely rare and endangered flower that is found only in the southwestern mountains of China. Ren spent four summers climbing Yaoshan Mountain at 3,000 meters above sea level where a hundred or so of these flowers are found.When it comes to general flower pollination, the flowers usually offer something to the insects in order to attract them, be it food, water, or specific chemicals. However, the lady’s slipper orchid has nothing to offer potential visiting insects.While most flowers are usually pollinated by bees, Ren found the only insect to visit these orchids were the flat-footed fly. The flat-footed fly feeds on fungus and, like the orchid, is extremely rare.In order to attract the fly, the orchid mimics this fungus with the spots on its leaves and the odor it releases. The scent, similar to the smell of the fungus the flat-footed flies feed on, attracts the flies and the spotted leaves visually make it look as though it is infected with the particular fungus.When the fly enters the flower, it has to follow a specific path to get out, passing the pollinators which deposit clumps of pollen onto to the fly who then carries it to the next flower he visits. Ren also discovered that the flowers go one step further in that the center of the flowers are hairs (trichomes) that have evolved to look like the fungal spores.When the team analyzed the flies, they found fungal spores on the mouth, head, feet and pads, as well as the pollen from the flowers on their backs. Ren is planning further research to discover why the fungus carried by the flies does not infect the orchid. He also wants to know if the relationship between the flies and the orchid play any contributing factor to them both holding a rare status. Orchid wears the scent of deathlast_img read more

  • Computer model simulates Neolithic transition from egalitarianism to leadership and despotism

    first_img More information: An evolutionary model explaining the Neolithic transition from egalitarianism to leadership and despotism, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … nt/281/1791/20141349AbstractThe Neolithic was marked by a transition from small and relatively egalitarian groups to much larger groups with increased stratification. But, the dynamics of this remain poorly understood. It is hard to see how despotism can arise without coercion, yet coercion could not easily have occurred in an egalitarian setting. Using a quantitative model of evolution in a patch-structured population, we demonstrate that the interaction between demographic and ecological factors can overcome this conundrum. We model the coevolution of individual preferences for hierarchy alongside the degree of despotism of leaders, and the dispersal preferences of followers. We show that voluntary leadership without coercion can evolve in small groups, when leaders help to solve coordination problems related to resource production. An example is coordinating construction of an irrigation system. Our model predicts that the transition to larger despotic groups will then occur when: (i) surplus resources lead to demographic expansion of groups, removing the viability of an acephalous niche in the same area and so locking individuals into hierarchy; (ii) high dispersal costs limit followers’ ability to escape a despot. Empirical evidence suggests that these conditions were probably met, for the first time, during the subsistence intensification of the Neolithic. How leaders evolve Scientists know that for hundreds of thousands of years, people lived in small hunter/gatherer communities. Because the groups were small and the projects undertaken were relatively simple, it’s believed that such groups were relatively egalitarian—there wasn’t a single person or small group bossing everybody else around. But then, something changed, people began living in much larger communities which were run by one person, or small groups of people, resulting in less freedom of choice for everyone else.But why would people willingly give up some of their freedom to some despot? Historians have several theories, but to date, no one has been able to prove any of them correct. In this new effort, the researchers try another approach, entering data into a computer model that creates simulations of what might have occurred during the Neolithic. To do so they converted human proclivities such as tolerance for authority or desire for a better life due to living in a more productive society, into data that could be modeled on a computer. Critical to the model was the ability to include offspring inheriting their parent’s values—that allowed for running simulations over several generations, allowing for group dynamics to emerge under different circumstances.In running the simulations, the researchers found that one scenario appeared to demonstrate the most logical explanation for the changes that occurred during the Neolithic—as people learned to control nature, such as by building dams or large water capture systems, a means of central control became necessary to avoid a chaotic work environment. As with any group of people, leaders arose along with associated followers. The leaders were then able to exert influence because both leaders and followers experienced a higher standard of living due to their collaborative efforts. Over time, as projects grew larger, so too did the number of people required to build them and the leaders gained even more power. Eventually, the leaders grew too powerful to ignore and thus was born the despotic types of governance that has since become one of the hallmarks of civilizations ever since. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers at Lucerne University has created a computer simulation that helps explain how it was that humans evolved from small egalitarian groups to larger societies with control in the hands of the few during the Neolithic. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Simon Powers and Laurent Lehmann describe how they put together their model and what the resulting simulation showed about a time during early human history that is not very well understood.last_img read more

  • Music gets a new high

    first_imgMusic Appreciation Promotion (MAP), flourishing since 2010, is an initiative of India international Centre (IIC) to initiate, inform, educate and entertain a wide cross section of audience on various genres and styles of music across the world through the use of the lecture-demonstration method, particularly on the use of archival recordings. The subjects the series has already tackled are Indian music personalities like –  Gauhar Jaan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kumar Gandharva, Ravi Shankar, Bismillah Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, MS Subbulakshmi as well as Tagore to musical gharanas like Kirana Gharana, Gwalior Gharana to forms like –  thumri, dhrupad, qawwali, ghazal and also Haveli Sangeet. The various forms of Carnatic music traditions, folk music and Hindi film music too have been discussed in this forum. Musical instruments have appeared as topic in this series like sitar, guitar and flute. The list grows longer everyday. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’One such musical evening of education and entertainment was organised on 19 Sept to introduce the audience to the Music of the Desert. The speaker was noted ethnomusicologist and archivist, Shubha Chaudhuri of Archive and Research Centre for Ethnomusicology (ARCE) from the American Institute of Indian Studies. She gave a detailed narrative of the musical traditions of Western Rajasthan and Kutch. This region has a shared history, thus, having a lot in common in terms of cultural practices and expressions. On the basis of her fieldwork, the presentation showed the different communities with their unique style of singing and a rich repertoire of instruments and song. It was interesting to know the patronage system that has helped these communities to sustain their singing traditions. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixChaudhuri also talked about the Surs of Shah Abdul Latif which are sung across the regions and borders. She talked about the shared memories, tunes and musical instruments that these communities have in common and also how the everyday practices are richly influenced by these songs.The lecture was followed by a performance by musicians from Kutch. Moora Lala Marwada, a noted singer,  staged a stunning performance which reminded the audience of the rich bhakti tradition as well as the living traditions of India. IIC is known for its engagements in promoting the Indian culture and bringing the best of singers to the audience of this city and Delhi will be witnessing more such musical evenings celebrating the secular harmony of our culture.last_img read more

  • Pumpkin Cheese cake

    first_imgCRUST INGREDIENTS:Oreo biscuit- 3 each, Marigold biscuit- 3 each, Butter- 75 gms, Garam masala- 1 pinchPUMPKIN CHEESE MIXPumpkin puree- 175 gms, Hazelnut paste- 27gms, Sugar- 60 gms, Milk-50ml, Cinnamon- 5 gms, Salt- 1 pinch, Heavy cream- 75 gms, Eggs- 2CHEESE CAKE:Cream cheese- 300 gms, Eggs-4, Heavy cream- 50ml, Vanilla- 10ml, Ricotta cheese- 200 gms, Butter -100 gms, Icing sugar- 150 gms, Flour-25gms, Orange zest-1METHOD OF CRUST: Crush oreo and marigold with the rolling pin; add melted butter and Garam masala into it. Mix it well, keep it aside. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’PUMPKIN CHEESE MIXMix the rest of the ingredients for pumpkin cheese together with the hand whisk or electric whisk until well combined. Take a cake ring and seal it with the aluminum foil.  Spread the biscuit base over it and press it firmly. Pour the pumpkin cheese mix over the crust. Bake it at 120’c for about 20-25 mins. Cool it down.CHEESE CAKE METHOD:Mix cream cheese, ricotta and icing sugar together, until light and fluffy then add eggs one by one. Keep mixing until well combined . Add orange zest, vanilla , flour, fresh cream in it. Mix it for few minutes. Pour this cheese cake mix on top of the pumpkin cheese mix, bake it at 120 degree Celsius for about 30-40 mins or until it springs back when pressed lightly from the center. Cool it down and refrigerate for couple of hours before serving.last_img read more

  • Divine charm

    first_imgThe various facets of Lord Krishna come alive on canvas as artists like Madhu Sudan, Suhash Das, Sudip Routh, Darshan Sharma, and Dibyendo Guha Roy among others, showcases their work at the show titled Charismatic Krishna. As the name suggests, the ongoing exhibition, celebrates the spirit of Krishna. Krishna’s mischief, his intelligence, his thoughtfulness, his love all has brought out effectively in this exhibition.Some of the detailing in the art works is extensive and proof of the effort put in. The paintings portray the various stages in the life of Krishna. Krishna seems to have an oriental influence, with the god reclining with a smile playing on his lips, while another painting shows Krishna in deep thought. What sets the paintings different is the intelligent use of bright colours of the artists, without leaving a jarring effect the rustic charm of Krishna’s early life. There are paintings depicting the love between Radha and Krishna. The art works are more evocative and full of expression. Krishna seems to have an oriental influence, with the god reclining with a smile playing on his lips, while another painting shows Krishna in deep thought.last_img read more

  • Kingpin of drug racket held 2 kg of Charas seized

    first_imgKolkata: The Kolkata Police in the wee hours on Thursday arrested one of the kingpin of narcotics supply racket from Ekbalpore police station area under the Port division. The sleuths have seized a huge amount of charas from the person who allegedly used to supply the stuff to rave parties in the city.The person has been identified as Mohammad Mursalin, a resident of Mominpore Road. He used to procure drugs from the neinghbouring country Nepal and had alleged links with some other cross border countries too. “He would himself go to Nepal for fixing deal regarding supply of such consignment,” an investigating officer said. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAccording to police sources, Mursalin had made a gang of his own that dealt with the supply of charas and other drugs. He would entice the unemployed youth in the area by telling them that it was a lucrative business and would fetch a lot of money.”We had our eyes on him for quite some time but he was eluding us. He was nabbed on the basis of a credible source information,” a police officer said. Mursalin’s gang primarily dealt with ganja and charas but would also import narcotics like heroin, brown sugar etc on demand. The sleuths had seized more than 2 kg charas from him while he was arrested from Meher Ali Mondal Lane in Ekbalpore.”He was supposed to hand over the stuff to some other person. We will take him into custody and will grill him to unearth the root of this racket,” an officer said.last_img read more