More information: An evolutionary model explaining the Neolithic transition from egalitarianism to leadership and despotism, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, rspb.royalsocietypublishing.or … nt/281/1791/20141349AbstractThe Neolithic was marked by a transition from small and relatively egalitarian groups to much larger groups with increased stratification. But, the dynamics of this remain poorly understood. It is hard to see how despotism can arise without coercion, yet coercion could not easily have occurred in an egalitarian setting. Using a quantitative model of evolution in a patch-structured population, we demonstrate that the interaction between demographic and ecological factors can overcome this conundrum. We model the coevolution of individual preferences for hierarchy alongside the degree of despotism of leaders, and the dispersal preferences of followers. We show that voluntary leadership without coercion can evolve in small groups, when leaders help to solve coordination problems related to resource production. An example is coordinating construction of an irrigation system. Our model predicts that the transition to larger despotic groups will then occur when: (i) surplus resources lead to demographic expansion of groups, removing the viability of an acephalous niche in the same area and so locking individuals into hierarchy; (ii) high dispersal costs limit followers’ ability to escape a despot. Empirical evidence suggests that these conditions were probably met, for the first time, during the subsistence intensification of the Neolithic. How leaders evolve Scientists know that for hundreds of thousands of years, people lived in small hunter/gatherer communities. Because the groups were small and the projects undertaken were relatively simple, it’s believed that such groups were relatively egalitarian—there wasn’t a single person or small group bossing everybody else around. But then, something changed, people began living in much larger communities which were run by one person, or small groups of people, resulting in less freedom of choice for everyone else.But why would people willingly give up some of their freedom to some despot? Historians have several theories, but to date, no one has been able to prove any of them correct. In this new effort, the researchers try another approach, entering data into a computer model that creates simulations of what might have occurred during the Neolithic. To do so they converted human proclivities such as tolerance for authority or desire for a better life due to living in a more productive society, into data that could be modeled on a computer. Critical to the model was the ability to include offspring inheriting their parent’s values—that allowed for running simulations over several generations, allowing for group dynamics to emerge under different circumstances.In running the simulations, the researchers found that one scenario appeared to demonstrate the most logical explanation for the changes that occurred during the Neolithic—as people learned to control nature, such as by building dams or large water capture systems, a means of central control became necessary to avoid a chaotic work environment. As with any group of people, leaders arose along with associated followers. The leaders were then able to exert influence because both leaders and followers experienced a higher standard of living due to their collaborative efforts. Over time, as projects grew larger, so too did the number of people required to build them and the leaders gained even more power. Eventually, the leaders grew too powerful to ignore and thus was born the despotic types of governance that has since become one of the hallmarks of civilizations ever since. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers at Lucerne University has created a computer simulation that helps explain how it was that humans evolved from small egalitarian groups to larger societies with control in the hands of the few during the Neolithic. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Simon Powers and Laurent Lehmann describe how they put together their model and what the resulting simulation showed about a time during early human history that is not very well understood.
Prabhudheva, who comes from south India, has directed Singh Is Bling featuring a Sikh character. Actor Akshay Kumar, who plays a ‘sardaar’ in the movie, says religion has no bearing on a person’s directorial skills.This is the second movie after Rowdy Rathore in which Prabhudeva is directing Akshay. Asked how it was for a south Indian to direct a movie on Sikhs, Akshay said, “Religion is not necessary for directing the movie. Singh Is Kinng, which was also on a ‘sardaar’, was directed by Anees Bazmee, a Muslim. Singh is Bling is being directed by a south Indian, Prabhudheva.” Also Read – A fresh blend of fame“It is not at all necessary that a movie on a ‘sardaar’ needs to be directed by a Punjabi. In India, all castes are one and we understand each other very well. Prabhudeva has done a very good job,” Akshay added.In Singh Is Kinng, Akshay had come under attack for sporting a trimmed beard, but this time, he has taken required steps to be on a safer side. “I’ve taken care of all things that I had not done during ‘Singh is Kinng’. I don’t want to show anything that the Sikh community or any other Indian community is hurt, like they were during Singh is Kinng. I had said ‘sorry’ then as well.” explained Akshay.
Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global This story originally appeared on Bizness Apps Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. It’s no mystery that mobile apps are spreading at an exponential rate. In 2013, USA Today reported that 300 apps are created every single day, and U.S. mobile commerce revenue is at an all-time high. While you may think that the key to increased downloads lies in a nice design and an array of functionality, recent data suggests that e-commerce and business apps need to go beyond that, focusing more on effective introductions to the mobile community.1. Your app scores low on the shareability scale.There are many effective mobile marketing strategies, but word-of-mouth is the best and cheapest way for your app to gain traction. Data suggests that over half of all consumers discovered an app through friends and family while only 27% found an app through a search engine (and even less through a company’s website). Keep in mind, “friends and family” includes social media shares, retweeting, etc., so it’s essential for app-makers and app-marketers to check off the following boxes while building: A niche market Easy sharing capabilities Social media integration Share-worthy contentIncreased exposure means increased downloads, but people won’t share an app that proves tiresome or irrelevant to their needs. Consumers share what’s interesting, visually pleasing, easy-to-use and engaging. Don’t make content second fiddle to capabilities; identify what your users are drawn in by and make it a pivotal part of your app’s execution.2. You’re not nailing it with the notifications.There’s a common misconception that consumer, mobile gaming and social media apps are one in the same when it comes to execution. This couldn’t be more false. Though there are some similarities in design and conception, the reasons people click the Install button vary widely. Consumer app users typically download for one of 4 reasons: To stay up-to-speed on a product through notifications (65%) To save time (31%) To use app-exclusive discounts and coupons (24%) To purchase app-exclusive products (21%)Note that the majority of users who download an app want to stay clued in on product and company updates. Push notifications are a highly effective way to reach your customer base, and an extremely simple, brief, and non-invasive way for your users to digest info that’s most relevant to them.3. You’ve made one (or a few) big development mistakes.Uninstalls are a big issue for consumer apps. An e-commerce company may follow popular design and functionality tips to a tee, keep the notifications flowing, and pack their app full of all the right info yet still see their installation numbers dwindle. More often than not, uninstalls results from several highly avoidable pitfalls:A lack of long-term valueA complex registration processPoor UI/UXIrrelevant or fluffed-up infoLong launch timesOf course, if your app hangs or (worse) crashes, you should expect a sharp user drop-off—these two issues account for 71% of all app uninstalls. Quality and user experience are key, so focus on repeated quality assurance checks before and after rollout.Tips for launching a successful consumer appLucrative e-commerce apps go beyond the programming basics to create a personalized user experience. Here are some simple ways to achieve that kind of experience for your user base: Create a mobile-only loyalty program that leads to repeat usage and in-app purchasing. Make your mobile deals attractive and your redemption process simple. Add badges, points and other game-like qualities that encourage regular engagement. Personalize the user experience with avatars, targeted info and personalized alerts. Offer in-app customer service with an FAQ page and quick contact tools. Think beyond the sale. Users want helpful, fun, engaging info — not just endless offers.As with any marketing tool, you’ll need to dedicate research and funding to perfecting your mobile app. Study your target demographic, conduct social media surveys and simply ask your existing customers what they want from a mobile tool. With a little TLC, you can turn your app into the profit-generator of your dreams. August 3, 2016 4 min read Register Now »